Men’s overuse of supplements classifies as eating disorder

Men aiming for a lean, muscular body often opt for supplements as a one stop shop. But overuse of and dependence on these legal products may be a sign of deeper problems, to the point where it may qualify as an emerging eating disorder, research presented Thursday at the American Psychological Association’s annual convention suggests.

The media’s increasing objectification of men’s bodies is partially to blame for the increased use of supplements, researchers said. Their study focused on legal appearance or performance enhancing supplements, such as whey protein, creatine and L cartinine, because they purport to give the user the exact body type they strive for. That body type is often perceived as balanced, muscular and low in fat like those physiques sported by Zac Efron and Ryan Reynolds.

The men in the study looked fit and healthy,
replica ray bans, but deterioration of the body due to supplement use may signal underlying emotional issues.

"Even if they look good on the outside, do they have excessive diarrhea? Are their livers and kidneys starting to give out from having to detox toxins? Are they adhering to this regimented style of eating in such a way to compromise their relationships and work life?" said Achiro, who is a registered psychological assistant.

The 195 study participants were between the ages of 18 and 65, and had a mean age of 33. All of the men had consumed legal supplements in the past 30 days,
fake ray bans, and they worked out a minimum of two times a week. Researchers used an online survey to gather information on supplement use, self esteem, body image, eating habits, and gender role conflicts.

The study found that 29 percent of men were concerned with their use of supplements, but 40 percent of men had increased their use, which researchers believe indicates underlying psychological and emotional issues preventing an individual from stopping what they know is dangerous behavior. Achiro likened it to cigarette smoking that it’s harmful is not news to anyone and continued use indicates psychological drivers for this behavior.

Study participants were also asked about physiological changes. Three percent reported they had been hospitalized for kidney or liver problems related to supplement use and 8 percent indicated that their doctor had told them to cut back or stop out of concerns for their health.

"Like an eating disorder, this can become really rigid, a person’s need for these supplements,
cheap oakleys," Achiro said. "To have to take them at certain times during the day can really start to intrude upon one’s ability to live a life that’s otherwise fulfilling."

Researchers’ reasoning for categorizing supplement overuse as an eating disorder is two fold. First, supplements are often sold in the form of foods, bars or powders, that become part of a person’s dietary habits. They also found a significant positive correlation between risky use of legal supplements and subscales on the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, a well established diagnostic tool for establishing eating disorder behaviors.

Most eating disorder research has focused on women, where the drive toward thinness typically manifests in food restriction and binging, or men who exhibit the same behavior. Research on supplements has focused on body builders and illicit steroid and human growth hormone use. After noticing the ubiquity of tubs of supplements in his male friends’ kitchens, Achiro looked into the research and saw a gap.

Society and research tend to under pathologize male populations, which is problematic because men enact self destructive behaviors that, because they define the norm, don’t get analyzed, Achiro said.

"Because we just assume sometimes that’s what men do, collectively, it’s kind of a normal thing, and in fact they’re overusing these supplements in a way that is damaging themselves and the people around them in some cases," he said.

Another danger of supplement misuse is that they are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Many companies have proprietary blends, and not all ingredients are listed.

"There have been findings over the past decade that have shown there’s been a significant amount of arsenic found in certain of these supplements," Achiro said.

The biggest finding from their study, researchers noted, is to put risky, excessive legal supplement use on the map as an issue facing a significant number of men.

"What are these men compensating for? Feelings of impotence in relationships, work life or both?" Achiro said. "It’s an underlying behavior men know is problematic, but are unable to change because so few of us men are open to addressing our emotional worlds and sense of inadequacy."

Facial Expressions May Confuse

As many card players would attest,
discount oakleys, reading a face is a difficult task.A new Northwestern University study of electrical activity in the brain supports this ibelief confirming that deciphering the facial expressions of a person who is trying to conceal fear or other emotions is tricky business.Though such "microexpressions" as a brief flash of fear are unlikely to be consciously noticed, they still get picked up by the brain and make their way through the visual system. The effect can alter perception and the way other people are treated or judged, the study concludes."Even though our study subjects were not aware that they were viewing subliminal emotional expressions, their brain activity was altered within 200 milliseconds," said Ken Paller, co investigator of the study at Northwestern."As a result, the ratings of facial expressions they did see were biased."In other words,
fake ray ban sunglasses, sometimes when it seems like you are acting on the vagaries of instinct, your brain is actually responding to real information about others that bubbles just beneath your consciousness.The study included tests to determine whether study volunteers had a tendency to experience anxiety,
fake oakleys, particularly in social situations.Those who tended to be socially anxious had the strongest brain response to subliminal expressions of fear."Neural and Behavioral Evidence for Affective Priming from Unconsciously Perceived Emotional Facial Expressions and the Influence of Trait Anxiety," will be published in an upcoming issue of the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.The study utilized neuroelectrical activity recorded from 64 EEG electrodes placed on the scalps of the volunteers to monitor their brains’ analyses of sensory input. Volunteers evaluated 70 different surprise faces. Half of the faces were primed by fearful expressions and half by happy expressions. The prime faces with happy or fearful expressions were shown for 30 milliseconds immediately prior to each surprise face.The expressions of surprise could be interpreted as positive (the sudden arrival of a friend) or as negative (a sudden violent act). Each was rated as "extremely positive," "moderately positive," "mildly positive," "mildly negative," "moderately negative" or "extremely negative."The volunteers rated the surprise faces primed by fear more negatively on average than those primed by happiness.Results of the study revealed that the visual system differentially processed the fearful and happy faces, even though this processing did not lead to conscious experiences."Environmental events that signal danger, such as someone’s facial expression of fear, may be preferentially detected so as to alert the individual to make an appropriate response," Paller said.Yet participants only noticed the surprise faces. When asked about the stimuli, volunteers were surprised to learn that prime faces with other expressions briefly appeared prior to the surprise faces."Our results show that an unconsciously perceived signal of threat, such as a brief facial expression of fear, can still bubble up and unwittingly influence social judgments and how we act,
fake oakleys," said Li.Those with a more anxious personality exhibited more biased negative evaluations of fear primed surprise faces and also greater brain wave indications of threat processing. Greater brain responses to threat in those prone to anxiety may thus lead to larger influences on social evaluation."Although people can do their best to avoid situations that they perceive as threatening, their brains may still be highly attuned to subtle environmental signals of threat," Paller said."A heightened sensitivity to subliminal threat may thus cause excessive anxiety."Microexpressions that people make may differ from voluntary expressions of emotion. But in either case, fear can be signaled by contraction of muscles that raise the inner brow, the outer brow, the upper lid, plus stretching the lips, parting the lips and dropping the jaw."The ability to detect microexpressions may allow an observer to be more empathetic and sense someone’s true intentions or motivation,
cheap oakleys sunglasses," said Paller.About Rick Nauert PhD Dr. Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Dr. Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. He has masters degrees in health fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management. (2007). Facial Expressions May Confuse. Psych Central.

Jarryd Hayne is not the first Australian to tackle US football

The widespread delight in former Parramatta fullback Jarryd Hayne showing Americans how to play gridiron is perfect reflection of the sporting cringe that shapes Australian national life.

Australian cricketers and surfers spend lifetimes trying to beat the English and the Hawaiians at their own games. Hayne, in turn, became the local hero who showed the Yanks how to do it at preseason training this week as he tried out for the San Francisco 49er’s 53 player squad.

For days, Australian television sets were alive with vision of the 27 year old Australian leaving Dallas and Houston players in his dust as he ducked and dazzled with amazing ball handling and 51 27 34 and 23 yard runs.

"I’m loving it," NFL great Jerry Rice said. "Every time he touches the football there’s something spectacular going on."

Cheap NFL Jerseys, the son of Auckland Warriors centre Manoa Thompson, was raised with his two sisters by their single mother Jodie and he cried last October announcing he was leaving for the US after a stellar Parramatta career.

"I was probably about to become the highest paid player in rugby league but I’m a kid from Minto," Hayne said as he broke down. "My whole dream of being a professional athlete was to buy my mum a house and I did that. Everything else is a bonus."

Many Australians have been called to gridiron but few chosen,
Wholesale NFL Jerseys.

Victorian high jumper Colin Ridgeway (the first Australian to clear 7 feet [2.13 metres]) was the trailblazer, signing with the Dallas Cowboys in 1965 after a desultory reserves career with Carlton Football Club. Ridgeway played only three games with Dallas and was murdered in Texas in 1993.

Most who came to play NFL in Ridgeway’s wake fared little better,
Cheap Jerseys.

In the main, they came from Australian rules football.

Former Melbourne and West Coast player Darren Bennett (San Diego Chargers) and Collingwood’s Saverio Rocca (Philadelphia Eagles) each played more than 100 games but the dozen other Australian hopefuls fell by the wayside.

The real successes were Mat McBriar,
NFL Jerseys 2015, Brad Wing and Jesse "Tha Monstar" Williams who made the NFL after playing in Australian gridiron competitions and headed across the Pacific on college football scholarships.

Parramatta is paying Hayne some $50,000 in the hope he returns home if his gridiron career turns rusty.

NFL Jerseys China, Nike has given its imprimatur and rushed out "Hayne 38" football jerseys. The Americans are planning to send scouts across the Pacific to scour Australian football codes for Hayne clones.

LV Handbags Will in Some Small Print on The Position With Years of Production Factory

As the sealing side will use a very red color, or too light color, brown, I wonder why is very timid, short brown color is wrong! In some places have enough to seal,
uggs fake, neat paint where more little. But the color that old, he couldn see, see the old bag change can cover many details, therefore, we must pay special attention to some online YiJiaChongZhen selling second hand Jimmy Choo Handbags AAA.

The copy from below, it can be seen only aging skin has been done, but with a masher skin color of sealing side is a timid. But if the color difference was old, disappear. Besides you can fine under the zipper bag divides imitation. Actually, even ifone has good copy.

LV handbags will in some small print on the position with years of production factory, usually made by the number two English words and four digit composition. Each Alexander wang handbags AAA will have. And produce different vintages. Package is different, serial number are also different. And copy will have tasted serial number, but often a counterfeit factory produces is using the same serial number. Must notice is that some authentic packets in 1987 the fruit before the class number.

No handbags LV pack pack in series, serial number of different position. Branded Example: the ShaoMai (such as root straps, metal buckles bag) root cortex (big pair) inside, bag buckles side of the skin on the shoulder), small (within the small side seam bag with skin (small duo), the inside of the bag with a top seam a piece of writing all LV bags, leather small branded, open, again inside the side seam (open), bag splay tannins by stitching position with the skin (placement), etc. In fine, always can find.

Many people think of serial number on the beginning start SP from France, is authentic. Actually,
ugg boots uk wholesale, not all LV products are from France. Spain, Italy, Germany and America have produced LV. So even if the product is not from France, also is not fake! While LV qa believe whatever from where, the quality will be the same. In addition, the number of France is not entirely in the SP begins.

While general generated by the two letters and four digit composition, on behalf of the origin and produce date. The first three months, the number and four digit year produce said. Update: now found many new Burberry handbags AAA serial number order four digit change regularity, 2006, the second after the bag, buy four digit year produce said, But first, three figures in the first week that product. Just learned. Thanks to provide information of beauty.

As mentioned, behind the MM not express 2007 1097 19 months, but says 19 weeks

Listed below are for reference, to identify key, you have to have outstanding memory:

France out: A0, A1, AA and AN AR, AO, AI,
wholesale cheap uggs, and AC milan, BA BU, and CA, CI, CT, ET, the FA, comparison, FL, FR, LM, LO, MB, MI, MO, MX, OS,
wholesale ugg boots uk, RA,
fake uggs uk, ND,, SD, SL, SN, SP, SR, TH, VI, VR, VX.

Spain: CA, LM, LO, rivera (M color).

Italy: SA.

American: comparison, FF, OS, SD.

Germany: PO, PB.

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Addiction And The Alternative

Addiction and substance abuse is serious whichever way you look at it,
replica ray ban sunglasses, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine has its own specific and unique approaches as to how to deal with it.

Addiction can be defined as "any physical or psychological dependence that negatively impacts a person’s life." Though a person may be addicted to many forms of behavior, "addiction" is usually used to refer to dependency on cigarettes,
cheap oakleys, alcohol, and both legal and illegal drugs and substances. Even addiction to certain foods may come into play here.

The alternative field believes that conventional ways fail to treat addicts, because they don’t consider the genetic and biochemical imbalances that research has shown to be at the center of addiction.

For example, such biochemical imbalances may be present, like the lack of the brain’s natural stimulants and relaxants, as well as malfunctioning brain neurotransmitters. As a result, addicts may may seek external alternatives to these chemicals they are lacking, and also show a flaw in the brain’s decision making center which may impair their abilities. The brain may then build new neural pathways that are hardwired to and always demand more of these addictive substances.

A genetic predisposition to addiction may also be present that can be triggered by various internal or external factors similar to other diseases such as diabetes.

It is also believed that there is a strong connection between addiction and allergies. Craving for a substance may indicate an allergy in relation to it such as with certain foods, when a vicious cycle is created as we crave the food we are addicted too in order to keep withdrawal symptoms at bay. Withdrawal symptoms for addicts are actually almost identical to symptoms occurring when allergenic substances are removed from the environment or diet.

Malabsorption of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals along with a more permeable or leaky gut disturbs the normal presence of microorganisms and allows foreign toxic substances to cross the intestinal wall. Undigested particles become toxic once they cross the intestinal wall, to enter the blood, and cause havoc in the body. The liver and immune system become overactive, overwhelmed, and confused, and allergies as well as addictions may develop as a result.

Though many modalities some of which are mentioned here,
discount fake oakleys, are helpful in overcoming addiction, focusing on diet is most essential, in order to change a person’s neurochemistry and nutrient deficiencies. That and to alleviate an addictive person’s issues in processing sugar and carbohydrates.

Through this, people can learn to master their own biochemical and physiological imbalances. The body being what it is with its own memory, once well nourished will kick in again and reestablish healthy function. As and adjunct, taking the proper vitamins, minerals,
wholesale ray bans, and other supplements is a vital tool for replenishing the body and its deficiencies and imbalances.

Traditional Chinese Medicine, especially acupuncture and auriculotherapy is very helpful for addicts and results in fewer relapses and readmissions to hospitals and programs.

Using Biofeedback, Neurofeedback, and visualization techniques helps to bring about significant behavioral change in the addictive personality.

Herbal medicine can play an important role in treating addiction, specifically with regard to the liver an organ most damaged by substance abuse, and with various withdrawal symptoms. Various flower essences as well, also make it easier to break the cycle of addiction.

Through Osteopathic or Chiropractic adjustments the body is realigned, giving it the ability to function in a whole way. Any neurological insult that may have been preventing the brain from releasing chemicals in the right sequence is corrected, giving the body its natural sense of well being and pleasure.

Ayurveda recognizes that addictions often develop while trying to deal with fear and anxiety. Each of the three different Ayurvedic body types deals with this differently, and has certain weaknesses that can lead to addiction.

With all these as tools as a basis,
ray ban sunglasses fake, we can use the body’s built in tendencies in an orderly and systematic way to help bring about natural healing.